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Review Series: Research Progress of Bone Repair Materials _ Biology Private individual

1 year ago Phones & Tablets Sāhibganj   229 views

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Original Title: Review Series: Research Progress of Bone Repair Materials Bone repair material is a feasible method to solve the problem of bone defect repair, which needs to be solved urgently in the field of orthopaedics. As a material for bone defect repair, four basic characteristics must be considered: first, biocompatibility; second, mechanical tolerance; third, biodegradability; fourth, induced regeneration. In recent years, bone repair materials have developed rapidly from autogenous bone, allogeneic bone, inert materials to highly active and multi-functional bone tissue engineering scaffolds. This paper gives a general introduction to three kinds of materials: metal, inorganic non-metal and organic polymer. Metallic materials are the earliest biomaterials studied, which have good mechanical property, especially in tensile strength and toughness, so they are more suitable for the repair of hard tissue defects. Commonly used metal materials include stainless steel, cobalt-chromium alloy, titanium alloy, tantalum alloy and magnesium alloy, among which stainless steel and cobalt-chromium alloy were used earlier. Stainless steel is widely used because of its good mechanical property and low price, but it has the problem of poor corrosion resistance. Cobalt-chromium alloy has good wear resistance, but its biological toxicity limits its further application [2]. Titanium alloy is the most widely used, with strong mechanical property and good biocompatibility, but the high elastic modulus of the implant will produce stress shielding effect, affecting the growth of bone tissue and metal-bone interface integration [3]. In recent years, magnesium alloys have attracted wide attention because of their good tensile strength, fracture toughness and degradation metabolism in vivo [4]. In addition, porous tantalum has attracted wide attention due to its good biocompatibility and corrosion resistance, ideal elastic modulus and suitable pores for bone ingrowth. At present, related products have been applied to clinical practice and are expected to become excellent bone repair materials [5]. The inorganic nonmetal material has good affinity with the natural bone, can stably exist in the human body, and is suitable for being implanted in hard tissue parts of the human body. Commonly used inorganic non-metallic materials include hydroxyapatite, calcium phosphate and bioactive glass. Compared with traditional hydroxyapatite which is not easy to degrade, nano-hydroxyapatite has better bioactivity and absorbability due to its high surface activity and ultrastructure, and has good biocompatibility and bone conductivity of traditional hydroxyapatite [6]. Calcium phosphate has many forms, such as ceramic, powder and bone cement,titanium sheet grade 5, which has good biodegradability, ideal biocompatibility and bone conductivity, and has a long-term application prospect in bone repair [7]. However, calcium phosphate itself has many disadvantages, such as limited mechanical strength and high brittleness, so it can only be used in non-load-bearing areas when applied alone. Bioactive glass is degradable under physiological conditions and is osteoconductive. However, its brittleness and low bending strength limit its application in hard tissue repair, and most of them can only be used to repair bone defects with small bearing requirements, such as teeth, cartilage, etc. [8]. Organic polymer materials can be divided into natural and synthetic types according to their sources. At present, the most commonly used natural organic polymer materials are collagen,ti6al4v eli, hyaluronic acid, chitosan and silk fibroin.  Mater Sci Eng CMater Biol Appl. 2018 Mar 1;84:159-167. [10] ShariatiniaZ. Carboxymethyl chitosan: Properties and biomedical applications. Int J BiolMacromol. 2018 Dec;120(Pt B):1406-1419. [11]SQ, Zhou C, You HJ, Ma Y, Li JM, Yang L, SungKL, Zhang YG. Silk structure and degradation. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces.2015 Jul 1;131:122-8. [12] FélixLanao RP, Jonker AM, Wolke JG, Jansen JA,titanium bar gr7, van Hest JC, Leeuwenburgh SC.Physicochemical properties and applications of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)for use in bone regeneration. Tissue Eng Part B Rev. 2013 Aug;19(4):380-90. Return to Sohu , see more Responsible Editor: yunchtitanium.com